Long Term Evolution – Its Features & Specifications
LTE refers to Long Term Evolution. It is a standard for 4G wireless broadband technology that provides enhanced speed, maximum performance, and increased network capability.
Long term evolution or LTE was the 4G successor to the 3G universal mobile telecommunication system which was developed with the aim to provide an added evolution of the mobile telecommunications system available. The primary role of LTE is to provide much higher data speed as well as improved performance along with reduced operating costs.
The first deployments were known as Long Term Evolution. Later on, deployments were known as 4G LTE Advanced and then 4G LTE Pro. 4G LTE does not only improve the radio access network but also the network architecture was overhauled that enables lower latency and better interconnectivity between elements of the radio access network, RAN.
3GPP or third generation Partnership Projectwas held in November 2004 in Toronto, Canada. The work on LTE was started in December 2004 and finalized for inclusion on 3GPP release 7. Later on, its core specifications were included in release 8.The new technology comes with a number of high level requirements, including:
- Reduced cost per bit
- Enhanced service provisioning
- Better services at low cost with better user experience
- Flexibility of use of current and new frequency bands
- Simplified architecture
- Open interfaces
- Reasonable terminal power consumption
Features and Specifications
As compared to the previous cellular systems, Long Term Evolution comes with a number of new technologies. They help in operating more efficiently and provide much higher data rates that are being required. Here are some features and specifications, including
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex: OFDM technology was used for the signal format for LTE as it delivers high data bandwidths to be transmitted in an efficient manner. It also provides a high degree of resilience to reflections as well as interference.
Multiple Input Multiple Output: One of the biggest issuesthat weredetected in previous telecommunication systems was that of multiple signals arising from various reflections that are encountered. With the help of multiple input multiple output or MIMO, additional signal paths could be used and were able to use to increase the throughput.
System Architecture Evolution: Due to high data rate and low latency requirements for 3G LTE, it became essential to evolve the system architecture and enable the enhanced performance to be achieved. In this system, the time of latency could be reduced and data can be routed more directly to its destination. With the advancement, EPC was developed with the aim to ensure that the packet data was routed as efficiently as possible.
IP Data:4G Long Term Evolution is an all IP Data system. 3G universal mobile telecommunication system has included circuit switched voice, but LTE had not provision for any circuit switched voice. Originally, it has been anticipated that operators would supply the data capability and voice would be through OTT applications. In order to overcome this, GSMA set the standard for voice connectivity as the Voice over LTE scheme – VoLTE.
Voice over LTE needed the implementation of an IMS core and it reduced the capability in view of the expense. In order to help operators overcome this, limited implementation of IMS was designed and it reduced the capital expenditure required by operators.
Hence, 4G LTE becomes the backboneof mobile communication technology. Both, the first and second generation were focused on voice, but 3G focused on mobile data. After this, 4G LTE comes with improved mobile data aspects and focuses on general mobile data connectivity.